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Daniel Janus’s blog

A case for symbol capture

5 April 2010

Clojure by default protects macro authors from incidentally capturing a local symbol. Stuart Halloway describes this in more detail, explaining why this is a Good Thing. However, sometimes this kind of symbol capture is called for. I’ve encountered one such case today while hacking a Swing application.

As I develop the app, I find new ways to express Swing concepts and interact with Swing objects in a more Clojuresque way, so a library of GUI macros and functions gets written. One of them is a wizard macro for easy creation of installer-like wizards, where there is a sequence of screens that can be navigated with Back and Next buttons at the bottom of the window.

The API (certainly not finished yet) currently looks like this:

(wizard & components)

where each Swing component corresponding to one wizard screen can be augmented by a supplementary map, which can contain, inter alia, a function to execute upon showing the screen in question.

Now, I want those functions to be able to access the Back and Next buttons in case they want to disable or enable them at need. I thus want the API user to be able to use two symbols, back-button and next-button, in the macro body, and have them bound to the corresponding buttons.

It is crucial that these bindings be lexical and not dynamic. If they were dynamic, they would be only effective during the definition of the wizard, but not when my closures are invoked later on. Thus, my implementation looks like this:

(defmacro wizard [& panels]
  `(let [~'back-button (button "< Back")
         ~'next-button (button "Next >")]
   (do-wizard ~'back-button ~'next-button ~(vec panels))))

where do-wizard is a private function implementing the actual wizard creation, and the ~'foo syntax forces symbol capture.

By the way, if all goes well, this blog post should be the first one syndicated to Planet Clojure. Hello, Planet Clojure readers!